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Amino acids

Amino acids are the basic units from which proteins are made. Over 170 amino acids are currently known to occur in cells and tissues.of these, only 20 are commonly found in proteins. Plants are able to make all the amino acids they require from simpler substances. However, animals are unable to synthesize all that they need, and therefore must obtain the other amino acids directly from their diet. These are termed essential amino acids.

ABC transporters play important roles in all types of organisms by participating in physiological and pathological processes. In order to modulate the function of ABC transporters, detailed knowledge regarding their structure and dynamics is necessary. Available structures of ABC proteins indicate three major conformations, a nucleotide-bound “bottom-closed” state with the two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) tightly closed, and two nucleotide-free conformations, the “bottom-closed” and the “bottom-open”, which differ in the extent of separation of the NBDs. However, it remains a question how the widely open conformation should be interpreted, and whether hydrolysis at one of the sites can drive conformational transitions while the NBDs remain in contact

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Chemiosmotic generation of ATP in the cell

When electrons from the carriers NADH and FADH2 are put into the electron transport chain, some of their energy goes to pumping H+ ions across through membrane protein pumps. These H+ ions then diffuse back through the ATP synthase, a protein channel with a rotor on one end. When the H+ ions diffuse through, they cause the rotor to spin, allowing it to attach a phosphate to ADP to form ATP….simple answer 🙂

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Amino acids and proteins……. an amino acid has a carbon which is connected to a carboxylic group, an amino group and a hydrogen. It is also connecyed to a R-group. Every amino acid has the carboxylic group, the hydrogen and the amino group but differs with respect to the R-group. Amino acids join to form proteins.look at this interesting video for more details. 😀